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Association of Muncipalities:  DIVISION OF POWERS IN CANADA

The Federal Government

The federal government has the power “to make laws for the peace, order and good government of Canada” except for subjects where the provinces are given exclusive powers.  Among the many exclusive powers of the federal government are:  

  • Citizenship

  • Criminal Law

  • Copyright

  • Employment Insurance

  • Foreign Policy

  • Money and Banking

  • National Defence

  • Regulation of Trade and Commerce

  • The Post Office

  • The Census  

According to the Constitution Act, 1867, everything not mentioned as belonging to the provincial governments comes under the power of the federal government.

The Provincial Government

The Provincial governments are responsible for issues that are explicitly given to them in Canada's written constitution­ the Constitution Act, 1867. Through the provincial legislature, the provincial government has the power to enact or amend laws and programs related to:

  • Administration of Justice

  • Education

  • Hospitals

  • Natural Resources and Environment

  • Property and Civil Rights in Ontario

  • Social Services

The province directly funds or transfers money to institutions to ensure the delivery of these important responsibilities, as well as provincial highways, culture and tourism, prisons, post-secondary education, and other services to Ontarians.  The provincial legislature also has power over all municipal institutions in the province.

Municipal Government

The powers of municipal governments are determined by the provincial government. Municipal governments in Ontario are responsible for providing many of the services within their local boundaries that you rely on daily such as:


  • Airports

  • Ambulance

  • Animal Control and By-law Enforcement

  • Arts and Culture

  • Child Care

  • Economic Development

  • Fire Services

  • Garbage Collection and Recycling

  • Electric Utilities

  • Library Services

  • Long Term Care and Senior Housing  

  • Maintenance of Local Road Network

  • Parks and Recreation

  • Public Transit

  • Planning New Community Developments and Enhancing Existing Neighbourhoods

  • Police Services

  • Property Assessment

  • Provincial Offences Administration  

  • Public Health

  • Side Walks

  • Snow Removal

  • Social Services

  • Social Housing  

  • Storm Sewers

  • Tax Collection

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